远心镜头与普通镜头

Good camera lenses don’t come cheap, but if you’re window shopping on Amazon or B&H Photo, you might notice some extreme outliers: cine lenses (or cinema lenses) designed specifically for filmmakers. While you can get a Canon 50mm f/1.8 for $125, the Canon 50mm T/1.3 cine lens is a cool $3,950. So, what sets this cine lens apart? Let’s find out.

好的相机镜头并不便宜,但是如果您在亚马逊或B&H Photo上逛街,您可能会发现一些极端的异常现象:专为电影摄制者设计的电影镜头(或电影镜头)。 虽然您可以以125美元的价格购买佳能50mm f / 1.8 ,但佳能50mm T / 1.3电影镜头的价格为3,950美元。 那么,什么使该电影镜头与众不同? 让我们找出答案。

Most lens manufactures offer multiple lenses with the same focal length at different price points. To continue the example above, Canon has a 50mm f/1.8 at $125, a 50mm f/1.4 at $329, a 50mm f/1.2 L at $1,299, and the 50mm T1.3 cine lens at $3,950. They all have the same focal length so the image will look similar regardless of which lens you use, especially if you use the same aperture. Still, there are some big difference between them.

大多数镜头制造商都以不同的价格提供多个具有相同焦距的镜头。 继续上面的示例,佳能有50mm f / 1.8 (125美元), 50mm f / 1.4 (329美元), 50mm f / 1.2 L (1,299美元)和50mm T1.3电影镜头 (3,950美元)。 它们都具有相同的焦距,因此无论使用哪种镜头,图像看起来都将相似 ,尤其是在使用相同的光圈的情况下。 两者之间还是有很大的区别。

更好的材料 (Better Materials)

One of the biggest differences between cheap photography lenses, expensive photography lenses, and cine lenses is the quality of the materials used. Canon’s 50mm f/1.8—an example that’s popular with amateur videographers—is made from plastic, while the f/1.2 and the T/1.3 cine lens are both made of metal. This means more expensive lenses tend to hold up better in the day-to-day abuse they receive from professionals.

便宜的摄影镜头,昂贵的摄影镜头和电影镜头之间的最大区别之一是所用材料的质量。 佳能的50mm f / 1.8镜头是由塑料制成的,而f / 1.2和T / 1.3的电影镜头都是由金属制成的,这在业余摄象机中很受欢迎。 这意味着更昂贵的镜片往往能更好地承受来自专业人士的日常虐待。

It’s not just on the outside that the materials are higher quality. A lot of work goes into making cine lenses as optically perfect as is humanly possible. While a bit of distortion, chromatic aberration, or vignetting is common in even high end photo lenses, manufacturers go to great lengths to minimize it with their cine lenses. It’s a lot easier to fix a few small problems in post for a photo than it is in a 120 minute feature film.

更高品质的材料不仅在外观上。 使电影镜头在光学上尽可能地人性化是一项艰巨的工作。 尽管即使在高端照相镜头中也会出现一些失真 , 色差或渐晕现象,但制造商会竭尽全力将其电影镜头最小化。 与在120分钟的故事片中相比,在照片中后期解决一些小问题要容易得多。

While the difference in image quality between a photography lens and a cine lens will, in most cases, be too subtle for anyone but experts to notice, it’s experts who are making films.

虽然在大多数情况下,摄影镜头和电影镜头之间的图像质量差异对于除专家以外的任何人来说都是微妙的,但制作胶片的却是专家。

T停而不是F停 (T-Stops Instead of F-Stops)

For photography, aperture is measured in f-stops. It’s purely a measure of the relationship between the size of the lens opening and the focal length of the lens. For videography, however, f-stops aren’t good enough: you also need to know how much light is being lost as it passes through the lens. This is where T-stops or transmission stops come in.

对于摄影, 光圈以f级为单位进行测量 。 它纯粹是衡量镜头开口尺寸和镜头焦距之间关系的量度。 但是,对于摄影而言,光圈挡不够好:您还需要知道光在通过镜头时会损失多少。 这是T形停车或变速箱停车的地方 。

If you have two different lenses—say a 35mm and a 50mm—set to the same f-stop at the same shutter speed and ISO, the resulting image will have a very similar, but not identical exposure. This isn’t really a problem for photography, but it’s a big issue for filmmaking, where you’re often swapping lenses and need everything to remain otherwise identical. To fix it, cine lenses use T-stops.

如果您在相同的快门速度和ISO下将两个不同的镜头(例如35mm和50mm)设置为相同的光圈值,则所得图像将具有非常相似但不相同的曝光。 对于摄影而言,这并不是真正的问题,但对于电影制作来说却是一个大问题,因为您经常需要更换镜头,并且需要其他一切保持原样。 要修复此问题,电影镜头会使用T型光圈。

If you take those same two lenses and set them to the same T-stop, shutter speed, and ISO, the resulting image will be identical. This is why Canon’s 50mm T1.3 cine lens has a series of sister lenses: a 24mm T1.5 and an 85mm T1.3. They’re meant to be used together as a set. T1.5 is identical across all three lenses.

如果您使用相同的两个镜头并将它们设置为相同的T档,快门速度和ISO,则最终的图像将相同。 这就是为什么佳能的50mm T1.3电影镜头具有一系列姊妹镜头: 24mm T1.5和85mm T1.3的原因 。 它们应作为一个集合一起使用。 所有三个镜头的T1.5相同。

更精确的聚焦控制 (More Precise Focus Control)

The vast majority of photos are taken using autofocus. It’s gotten so good in modern cameras that the only time you really need to use manual focus is when you’re doing something super specific like astrophotography. This means that a lot of modern photography lenses have pretty poor manual focus controls. They often don’t have markings for focal distances and, even if they do, they have very limited “focus throw”—how far you can rotate the focus ring before being at the closest focus or infinity—which means you don’t have a lot of control.

绝大多数照片是使用自动对焦拍摄的。 在现代相机中它已经变得如此出色,以至于您真正需要使用手动对焦的唯一时间是在进行诸如天文摄影之类的超特定工作时。 这意味着许多现代摄影镜头的手动对焦控制都非常差。 它们通常没有焦距标记,即使有焦距标记,它们也具有非常有限的“聚焦距离”,即您可以在聚焦或无穷远之前将聚焦环旋转多远,这意味着您没有很多控制。

Cine lenses are all manual focus and have clearly marked focal distance scales. There are hard stops at the closest focus distance and infinity with a big focus throw in between for super precise adjustments. They also have grooves on the focus ring, which can be used with automated and follow focus devices. This means film makers can quickly switch between two preset focus points or track focus on someone as they move through a scene. If the cine lens is also a zoom lens, then the focus point will remain the same while you zoom—something that isn’t necessarily true of still lenses.

电影镜头都是手动对焦的,并且焦距刻度清晰可见。 在最接近的对焦距离和无限远处有硬停,并且在两者之间有较大的对焦距离,可以进行超精确的调整。 它们在聚焦环上也有凹槽,可与自动装置和聚焦装置一起使用。 这意味着电影制作人可以在两个预设焦点之间快速切换,或者在某人在场景中移动时对其进行跟踪。 如果电影镜头也是变焦镜头,那么变焦时焦点将保持不变-静态镜头不一定如此。

All in all, cine lenses just give you far more control over focus, while photography lenses basically leave it up to your camera.

总而言之,电影镜头可以使您更好地控制对焦,而摄影镜头则基本上由相机决定。

固定设计 (A Fixed Design)

Cine lenses tend to be released in sets like the Canon 24mm, 50mm, and 85mm I’ve been using as an example in this article. All the lenses in the set share the same form factor, filter size, optical design, focus set up, and the like. This means that not only will the image be incredibly consistent between the lenses, but they can also be used with the same accessories. While this might sound like a minor point, it’s actually a huge benefit for filmmakers who are often working with complicated rigs that include follow focus devices, counter balanced gimbals, neutral density filters, and any other bit of kit they can strap on. If you can just swap lenses without having to change anything else, it makes it much easier to focus on the nitty gritty of making your movie.

电影镜头通常会以佳能的24mm,50mm和85mm等镜头发布,我在本文中一直以它为例。 套装中的所有镜片都具有相同的外形尺寸,滤镜尺寸,光学设计,聚焦设置等。 这意味着不仅镜头之间的图像会非常一致,而且它们也可以与相同的附件一起使用。 虽然这听起来似乎是次要的一点,但对于电影制片人来说,这实际上是一个巨大的好处,他们经常使用复杂的装备,包括跟随聚焦设备,平衡平衡的云台,中性密度滤镜以及他们可以捆绑的任何其他套件。 如果您可以更换镜头而不必进行其他任何更改,则可以更轻松地专注于制作电影的精髓。



Cine lenses are incredible pieces of glass, but their specific film making features mean they don’t come cheap. In face, most film makers don’t even own cine lenses (some of which can cost north of $100,000)—they rent them on a day to day basis for shoots. The good news though, is that if you ever want to try one out, you can probably rent it too.

电影镜头是一块令人难以置信的玻璃片,但其特殊的制片功能意味着它们并不便宜。 面对现实,大多数电影制作人甚至都不拥有电影镜头(其中一些镜头的价格可能超过100,000美元),他们会每天租用它们来拍摄。 好消息是,如果您想尝试一下,也可以租用它。

Image Credits: ShareGrid, ShareGrid via UnSplash.

图片来源: ShareGrid , ShareGrid通过UnSplash。

翻译自: https://www.howtogeek.com/356738/what-makes-a-cine-lens-different-from-regular-lenses/

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